Diet & Exercise DNA Test – Interpretation Guide

Diet & Exercise DNA Test – Interpretation Guide

DIET & EXERCISE DNA TEST

This report provides explanations of the contribution that your genetic profile provides by influencing your health in the following important areas:

  • Based on our analysis of your genes we will determine which of the three possible diet plans (low fat, low carb, and the Mediterranean) is likely to be the most effective for you.
  • You will also receive a personalized exercise intensity program with a guide to plan your exercise week to meet your tailored recommendations.

What tests are being performed? Once we receive your swab sample, we will use special molecular techniques to amplify your Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) for analysis. In this process, called the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), copies of regions of your genes will be amplified many times over, so that we can generate sufficient quantities to analyze your genetic material. We will then identify unique DNA sequences in some of your genes. Certain changes (polymorphisms) in these genes have been studied in detail, and evidence has emerged that correlates these polymorphisms with an individual’s weight management and response to diet and exercise intervention. Having identified the presence or absence of these polymorphisms, we are able to qualitatively assess particular areas of intervention for improved weight management related to the specific genes.

What can our genes tell us? Depending on your unique genetic profile, we will be able to assess if your body is able to mobilize fat stores for energy-efficient and if you are at a greater risk of obesity and elevated insulin levels with carbohydrate (CHO) intake. With this profile, decreasing the intake of CHO has been shown to reduce insulin levels and is beneficial in weight management.

We will also be able to access if your genetic profile is associated with increased obesity risk, especially when dietary saturated fat and omega-6 fatty acids intake is high. If this is part of your personalized profile, we will explain how to manage inflammation by emphasizing dietary intake of omega 3 fatty acids and to monitor saturated fat intake.

Individuals show different genetic responses to exercise as well. Within your genetic result set, we may recommend higher levels of vigorous physical activity, or if moderate exercise works best for you. We will provide you with recommend amounts of weekly exercise, specific to your genetic results, for maximizing your chances of weight loss.

While devising your personalized diet plan, we consider four genetically-based diet and lifestyle factors: exercise, obesity risk, sensitivity to carbohydrates and sensitivity to saturated fats. A brief explanation of these lifestyle factors is given below:

  • OBESITY RISK: This gives some indication of the likelihood that you may gain weight easily, but find it more difficult to lose weight than those around you.
  • SATURATED FAT: Individuals differ in their response to the quantity and quality of fat in their diet. Your genes may in influence how you absorb fat, as well as your ability to burn up fat.
  • CARBOHYDRATE: Research has clearly shown that individuals respond differently to carbohydrates in the diet. For some, reducing carbohydrate intake improves weight loss and prevents weight gain.
  • EXERCISE: Exercise is an important part of weight loss, but some individuals require higher exercise intensities and greater time spent exercising to mobilize their fat stores. It is important to understand the contribution of exercise in your weight management plan.

Your best possible DIET PLAN is based on the contribution of weight management genetic variables, and with your personalized results we will customize a weight loss program best suited to your needs following one of three diets:

Mediterranean Diet

The Mediterranean food patterns are typical of Crete, Greece and Southern Italy in the early 1960s. The term is closely tied to traditional areas of olive cultivation in the Mediterranean region more than 30 years ago and not to the urbanized diet eaten in those countries today. Several studies have established the health benefits of the Mediterranean diet in reducing the risk of metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and some neurodegenerative diseases and cancers. In addition, it has been shown to be an extremely effective eating plan for weight loss.

The Diet is Best Described As:

  • Rich in plant foods (whole-grain cereals, fruits, vegetables, legumes, tree nuts, seeds, and olives) Extra virgin olive oil is the principal source of added fat
  • High to moderate intakes of fish and seafood
  • Moderate consumption of eggs, poultry, and low-fat dairy products (mainly cheese and yogurt)
  • Low consumption of red meat
  • Moderate intake of alcohol (mainly wine during meals)
  • In addition, all foods in this plan should be as fresh as possible, minimally processed, local and seasonal whenever possible.

Low Fat Diet

A low-fat diet is often recommended by the AHA, ASDA Healthy Eating guidelines. In general, a low-fat diet is comprised of a fat intake of less than 30% of total energy. However, for the purpose of weight loss, it is recommended that fat should be reduced to 20% of total energy. We recommend a low-fat diet to individuals who have a greater absorption of dietary fat due to genetic variations and individuals who tend to have a slower mobilization of fat from fat cells.

The Diet is Best Described As:

  • Consume whole-grains, vegetables, fruits, and legumes.
  • Choose organic, lean sources of meat, chicken, fish and dairy (low-fat or fat-free).
  • Pay close attention to the procurement, preparation, and cooking of your meals to keep fat content to a minimum.
  • Try to avoid refined carbohydrates and sugar as much as possible.
  • A minimum of three meals should be eaten, ideally with two snacks between meals and no meals should be skipped.

Low Carbohydrate Diet

Low carb diets have a positive impact on obesity, serum lipids, impaired glucose metabolism, and hypertension, but it is important to understand what constitutes a low carbohydrate diet. There is no need to completely cut out carbohydrates from the diet; the same positive results can still be achieved with a small intake of carbohydrates as described in the recommendations below. A low carbohydrate diet limits intake to 30-130g of carbohydrate per day, usually starting with the lower level in the first week or two, increasing to 60-70g per day by week three, and eventually maintaining approximately 100-130g per day.

The Diet is Best Described As:

  • Refined carbohydrates, most whole-grains, and all sugars should be avoided, including natural sugars.
  • Carbohydrates will be consumed in an array of vegetables and fruits, legumes, seeds and nuts, and dairy. All these foods contain a number of carbohydrates and need to be accounted for in your diet plan.
  • Avoid starchy vegetables as they are high in carbohydrates and instead include leafy green vegetables when possible. Restrict fruits as well.
  • As long as weight loss is being achieved, there is no need to restrict fat intake. However, if you wish to boost weight loss, then a moderate-fat restriction may be required.
  • Fat intake should focus on monounsaturated fatty acids, mostly from olive oil, and n-3 poly-unsaturated fat-rich foods such as fatty fish.
  • Eat three meals and two snacks per day – never skip meals.
  • Avoid drinks and foods with artificial sweeteners, and ensure adequate intake of water.
  • Learn to read food labels. Most food contains carbohydrates and you need to learn to identify foods that contain hidden carbohydrates, especially sugar. As an example, tomato sauce and salad dressing are both very high in sugar.
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